ferrite magnets
Analysis on the development barriers of China's high performance NdFeB
Mar 22,2021.

According to industry practice, sintered NdFeB permanent magnet materials with the sum of intrinsic coercivity (kOe) and maximum magnetic energy product (MGOe) greater than 60 are high-performance NdFeB permanent magnet materials. The main parameters for measuring the performance of permanent magnet materials are coercivity, maximum magnetic energy product, remanence, and maximum operating temperature. The first three indicators mainly measure the magnetic properties of the material. The higher the value, the better. The operating temperature measures the temperature resistance of the magnet. feature. Sintered NdFeB magnetic materials are divided into low coercivity (N), medium coercive force (M), high coercive force (H), super high coercive force (SH), ultra-high There are seven categories of coercive force (UH), extremely high coercive force (EH), and highest coercive force (TH).

neodymium magnets magnetic property

The raw materials of NdFeB magnetic materials mainly include rare earth metals such as neodymium, praseodymium, dysprosium iron, pure iron, and boron-iron alloys. Among them, rare earth metals such as praseodymium and neodymium account for about 60% of the cost of raw materials. Look, raw materials account for 60-80%. The fluctuation of rare earth prices will affect the profitability of upstream smelting and separation companies and NdFeB production companies, but NdFeB companies are less affected by price fluctuations.

The application scenarios of high-performance NdFeB have gradually developed from traditional consumer electronics to emerging fields, from VCM in 2002, wind power generation and energy-saving appliances in 2008-2009 to automotive EPS that emerged in 2011-2012. These fields use neodymium iron. The core of boron magnetic material lies in its advantages of energy saving, high efficiency, small size and light weight. In the future, the development of new energy vehicles will become the main growth point for the demand for high-performance NdFeB magnets.

At present, traditional automobiles are the scene where high-performance NdFeB permanent magnet materials are most used. The downstream application fields of high-performance NdFeB permanent magnet materials are mainly divided into two categories: one is new energy and energy conservation and environmental protection, including wind power, new energy vehicles and auto parts, energy-saving home appliances, robots, etc.; the other is traditional Application areas, including VCM, consumer electronics, etc. In 2018, the traditional automotive sector accounted for nearly 40% of the global demand for high-performance NdFeB, and new energy vehicles accounted for nearly 12%. Other consumer sectors include industrial applications (10.9%), wind power (10%), and consumer electronics (9.1%) , Inverter air conditioners (9%), energy-saving appliances (8.4%).

neodymium magnets application field

High-performance NdFeB industry development barriers

1. Technical barriers

High-performance neodymium iron boron is a technology-intensive industry, which requires high magnetic performance indicators and consistency of high-performance neodymium iron boron permanent magnet products, and requires strict control of process design and production processes. At the same time, as downstream customers’ requirements for output and quality are increasing, manufacturers need to improve their process level, strengthen quality control and production management procedures, and technological improvement and improvement require a long time of technical accumulation and large-scale production practices to obtain Stable quality and high yield rate.

2. Manufacturing barriers for non-standardized products

High-performance neodymium iron boron is mostly non-standardized products, involving the development of new materials, new processes and new products. The production process is long, operation and management are difficult, and professional production and management are required from product design, trial production to mass production. team. At the same time, different downstream application fields have large differences in product performance requirements, and differentiated development and manufacturing are required for the specific needs of different customers. Therefore, only manufacturers with strong R&D capabilities can organize product development through long-term industry experience accumulation. R&D and production, and enter the corresponding downstream application fields.

3. Financial barriers

Manufacturers of high-performance NdFeB need large-scale capital investment to purchase production equipment and establish production lines to form the production capacity of high-performance NdFeB products. The production line of NdFeB blanks above 1,000 tons can easily invest hundreds of millions of funds. , Is unbearable for small and medium-sized enterprises, and a viable product needs to go through a longer period of market verification, which requires the enterprise to have sufficient liquidity to support its operation. At the same time, in order to become a leading company in the industry and obtain stable sales profits, it also needs to invest a lot of money in the research and development of new technologies and new products to reduce manufacturing costs and improve production efficiency.

4. Customer stickiness barriers

As an important functional material, the quality of high-performance NdFeB magnetic materials has a significant impact on the performance of the final product. Magnetic material manufacturers need to operate a long-term cooperative relationship with downstream customers. Only their products have a long-term work record. In order to prove that the company has stable and reliable follow-up service capabilities, so as to gain customer trust. At present, the leading companies in the NdFeB industry have rich overseas marketing experience and have accumulated considerable customer resources. In order to maintain stable product performance, customers usually do not easily replace them after selecting a magnetic material supplier and approved by long-term cooperation. Cooperative partner.

5. Quality certification barriers

The downstream customers of high-performance NdFeB are mostly large-scale high-end enterprises, which have high requirements for industrial performance, consistency and stability. Therefore, the supplier will conduct strict and long-term quality certification. This is the customer's long-term technical service Based on inspections in various aspects such as level, product quality, and timeliness of after-sales service, it is difficult and a long time for magnetic materials companies to enter the industrial chain of new large-scale customers.

6. Talent barriers

The domestic high-performance NdFeB permanent magnet material industry seriously lacks technical R&D personnel, especially high-level technical R&D personnel and management personnel with international industry experience. In addition, the current professional talents in the high-performance NdFeB permanent magnet material industry in my country are basically derived from the self-cultivation of enterprises. Meet the needs of technology research and development and product production.

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