ferrite magnets
What is rare earth permanent magnet material?
Mar 30,2021.

Rare earth permanent magnet materials, that is, permanent magnet materials contain rare earth metals as alloying elements. Permanent magnet material means that the magnetization is removed from the external magnetic field and can maintain strong magnetism for a long time.

Rare earth permanent magnet material is a kind of magnetic material made by alloy composed of samarium, neodymium mixed rare earth metal and transition metal (such as cobalt, iron, etc.), pressed and sintered by powder metallurgy method, and magnetized by a magnetic field.

Rare earth permanent magnets are divided into: samarium cobalt (SmCo) permanent magnets and neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) permanent magnets. Among them, the energy product of SmCo magnets is between 15-30MGOe, and the energy product of NdFeB magnets is between 27-50MGOe, which is called "the king of permanent magnets" and is the most magnetic permanent magnet material. Although samarium-cobalt permanent magnets have excellent magnetic properties, they contain rare earth metal samarium and cobalt, which are scarce and expensive strategic metals. Therefore, its development has been greatly restricted. The development of my country's rare earth permanent magnet industry began in the late 1960s. At that time, the leading product was samarium-cobalt permanent magnets. The sales volume of samarium-cobalt permanent magnets in the world was 630 tons, and in my country it was 90.5 tons (including SmCo magnetic powder). technology.

It is divided into the first generation (SmCo5), the second generation (Sm2Co17) and the third generation of rare earth permanent magnet materials (NdFeB). New rare earth transition metal series and rare earth iron nitrogen series permanent magnet alloy materials are under development and may become a new generation of rare earth permanent magnet alloys.

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Comparison of samarium cobalt magnets and neodymium iron boron magnets

1) Different ingredients:

Neodymium iron boron magnet:

Rare earth metal neodymium 29%-32.5%

Metal element iron 63.95-68.65%

Non-metal element boron 1.1-1.2%

Add a small amount of dysprosium 0.6-1.2% niobium 0.3-0.5% aluminum 0.3-0.5% copper 0.05-0.15% and other elements

Samarium Cobalt Magnet 2:17:

Sm: 23-28%

Rare earth metal cobalt Co: 48-52%

Metal element iron Fe: 14-17%

Metal element copper Cu: 5-7%

Add a small amount of zirconium Zr: 2-3

2) Different performance

Relatively speaking, the overall performance of samarium cobalt magnets is weaker than that of neodymium iron boron!

3) Different prices

Samarium cobalt magnets and neodymium iron boron magnets of the same performance and size, the price of neodymium iron boron is lower than that of samarium cobalt! Of course, it can be seen from the ratio of the two metal elements above! The content of iron in NdFeB is higher, the content of rare earth elements is less, and the price of iron is very cheap, so the price of NdFeB is cheaper! The content of rare earth elements samarium and cobalt in samarium cobalt magnets accounts for about 70%, so The price is slightly higher!

4) The ability of high temperature resistance, oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance is different

The content of iron in NdFeB is very high, so it is easy to be oxidized and corroded, so it needs to be electroplated, and the service life is largely determined by the effect of the coating! The content of iron in samarium-cobalt magnets is only a small part, which are basically rare earth and metal elements that are not easily oxidized and corroded. Under normal circumstances, electroplating treatment is not required; however, the use environment is relatively harsh or in order to prolong the service life and beautify the appearance , It would be better to do electroplating treatment!

With the advancement of science and technology, rare earth permanent magnet materials are not only used in various micro-special motors in the industries of computers, automobiles, instruments, meters, household appliances, petrochemicals, healthcare, aerospace, etc., as well as nuclear magnetic resonance equipment, electrical devices, and magnetic fields. Separation equipment, magnetic machinery, magnetic therapy equipment and other components that need to generate a strong gap magnetic field, and the demand for high-end rare-earth permanent magnet materials in emerging fields such as wind power generation, new energy vehicles, inverter home appliances, energy-saving elevators, and energy-saving oil pumping units Increasingly, the application market space is huge.

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